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Various studies are in progress, but this has not yet been elucidated. The laws of black-hole mechanics are expressed in geometrized units. Black hole thermodynamics BHT is regarded as one of the deepest clues we have to a quantum theory of gravity.

### Black-hole thermodynamics – Wikipedia

For perturbations of stationary black holes, the change of energy is related to change of area, angular momentum, and electric charge by. However, when quantum-mechanical effects are taken into account, one finds that black holes emit thermal radiation Hawking radiation at a temperature.

There ho,e to be also discussed the calculation of Bekenstein—Hawking entropy from the point of view of LQG. This is often referred to as the Bekenstein—Hawking formula. Extremal black holes [13] boack vanishing black hole thermodynamics pdf download gravity.

## General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology

Webarchive template wayback links. Finally, and perhaps worst, we point out that one of the primary motivations for the theory arises from a terribly controversial understanding of entropy. Reviews of Modern Physics. The horizon has constant surface gravity for a stationary black hole. If one only considers black holes classically, then they have zero temperature and, by the no-hair theorem black hole thermodynamics pdf download, [7] zero entropy, and the laws of black-hole mechanics remain an analogy.

LQG offers a geometric explanation of the finiteness of the entropy and of the proportionality of the area of the horizon.

More fundamentally, ‘t Hooft and Susskind used the laws of black-hole thermodynamics theromdynamics argue for a general holographic principle of nature, which asserts that consistent theories of gravity and quantum mechanics must be lower-dimensional. Second, we point out dodnload important ambiguity in what systems the analogy is supposed to govern, local or global ones.

The left side, dE black hole thermodynamics pdf download, is the change in energy proportional to mass. The second law of thermodynamics requires that black holes have entropy. The fact that the black-hole entropy is also the maximal entropy that can be obtained by the Bekenstein bound wherein the Bekenstein bound becomes an equality was the main observation that led to the thermodyhamics principle.

Considering the Lovelock gravity’s rainbow black hole thermodynamics pdf download to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions.

## Black Hole Thermodynamics and Riemann Surfaces

BHT may be a useful guide to future physics. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The laws, analogous to the laws of thermodynamicswere discovered by Brandon CarterStephen Hawkingand James Bardeen.

There are also connections between black-hole entropy and fluid surface tension. First, we show that BHT is often based on a kind of caricature of thermodynamics. However, generalizing downkoad second law as the sum of black-hole entropy and outside entropy, shows that the second law black hole thermodynamics pdf download thermodynamics is not violated in a system including the universe beyond the horizon.

Blxck this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity’s rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity’s rainbow. The second law is the statement of Hawking’s area theorem.

It suggests that the surface gravity is analogous to thermodynamis. The four laws of black-hole mechanics suggest that one should black hole thermodynamics pdf download the surface gravity of a black hole with temperature and the area of the event horizon with entropy, at least up to some multiplicative constants.

### Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity’s rainbow with (A)dS asymptote – ScienceDirect

Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars. In physicsblack-hole thermodynamics is the area of study that thermodnamics to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons. My Brief History The situation changed in when Black hole thermodynamics pdf download Strominger and Cumrun Vafa calculated [8] the right Bekenstein—Hawking entropy of a supersymmetric black hole in string theoryusing methods based on D-branes and string duality.

The rationale for BHT playing this important black hole thermodynamics pdf download, and for much of BHT itself, originates in the analogy between black hole behavior and ordinary thermodynamic systems. Only time will tell. Hawking and Page have shown that black-hole thermodynamics is more general than black holes—that cosmological event horizons also have an entropy and temperature.

This “law” was superseded by Hawking’s discovery that black holes radiate, which causes both the black hole’s mass and the area of its horizon to decrease over time. But the analogy is not nearly as good as is commonly supposed. Gravitational singularity Penrose—Hawking singularity theorems Primordial black hole Gravastar Dark star Dark-energy star Black star Eternally collapsing object Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object Fuzzball White hole Pvf singularity Ring singularity Black hole thermodynamics pdf download parameter Membrane paradigm Kugelblitz Wormhole Quasi-star.

Causal dynamical triangulation Causal sets Noncommutative geometry Spin foam Group field theory Superfluid vacuum theory Twistor theory Dual graviton.